Chapter 2: General Works — Articles, Papers, and Documents

This chapter section includes includes articles and papers of a general nature that focus on library services for distance learning. Arrangement is by type of material rather than by topic.


“40 Ways to Maintain Academic Integrity in Online Courses.” Distance Education Report; no. 2 (2009): 4-4.
This article lists ideas for instructors to maintain academic integrity in online courses. The methods are categorized by two main approaches: virtue and policing. The virtue approach encourages developing students who do not want to cheat. Some of the methods in the virtue approach suggest making information about academic integrity readily available to students, including ethics in curriculum and orientation activities, requiring students to read and agree to integrity policy, providing students with a writing handbook that includes plagiarism information, and developing an honor code at the semester's start. The policing approach involves catching and punishing students who cheat. This approach suggests methods such as using a plagiarism detection service, checking references, asking students how they accessed a reference, comparing quotations with cited sources, and filing old papers in the department by topic, for reference.  S. Cisse


Attfield, Simon, Stephann Makri, James Kalbach, Ann Blandford, Stephen De Gabrielle, and Mark Edwards. “Prioritisation, Resources and Search Terms: A Study of Decision-Making at the Virtual Reference Desk.” In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 12th European Conference, ECDL 2008, Aarhus, Denmark, September 2008 Proceedings, edited by Birte Christensen-Dalsgaard, Donatella Castelli, Bolette Ammitzbøll Jurik, and Joan Lippincott. Berlin: Springer, 2008, 106-116.
Studying the decision-making activities of virtual reference librarians can impact the design of online reference services. The initial interview, observation, and focus group was conducted with three law librarians. A questionnaire was administered via electronic mailing lists to explore the generalizability of the initial findings to other law librarians. There were fifty-seven respondents. The findings show that librarians use enquirer-provided information to prioritize enquiries, select resources, and select search terms. The study also showed that librarians referred to previous enquiries similar to new questions to aid their decision making. Barriers to providing efficient service include users not volunteering important information, librarians’ reluctance to prompt enquirers for the status of the end user, and the inability of email clients to support speculative matching. To overcome these barriers, the authors suggest prompting users at the time of initial enquiry and using knowledge bases with automated speculative matching systems. Areas for further research include exploring virtual reference librarian decision-making in non-legal settings and examining the problems faced by virtual reference librarians supporting public access digital libraries.  C. Barboza

Blankenship, Emily. ”Aligning the Assessment Process in Academic Library Distance Education Services Using the Nash Model for Improved Demonstration and Reporting of Organizational Performance.” Journal of Library Administration 48, nos. 3/4 (2008): 317-328.
Academic libraries today are faced with having to justify their online distance education service environments, since distance education is growing rapidly.  In this article, the author uses the Nash Model for Improved Demonstration and Reporting of Organizational Performance to help libraries align themselves with the distance education environment that they support. There are six components involved in the Nash Model: library leadership, the stakeholder, the capacity of the library to perform assessment processes, technology, and participation. The author concludes that these tools can be used to assess libraries’ distance education services and make any improvements in that area.  R. McWilliams

Curran, Mary. “Are Standards and Distance Education to be the Saviors of the Library Profession, and Will NISO and ACLTS Lead the Way? Or, Reflections on the NISO/ALCTS Webinar Series in Light of the Report of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control.” The Serials Librarian 55, no. 4 (2008): 547-555.
This article reviews the report of the Library of Congress working group on the Future of Bibliographic Control and its recommendation to nurture professional development for librarians and sharing educational materials broadly via distance learning.  The author explores the use of webinar technology to cultivate collaboration and learning communities among librarians as a cost-effective alternative to attendance of seminars and workshops at professional association conferences.  D. Long

Haycock, Ken, and Jeremy W. Kemp. “Immersive Learning Environments in Parallel Universes: Learning through Second Life.” School Libraries Worldwide 14, no. 2 (July 2008): 89-97.
The use of Second Life in courses at the San Jose State University (SJSU) School of Library and Information Science is described and evaluated. Multi-user virtual environments such as Second Life are currently used in trials by major corporations (e.g. Cisco, Dell, & Adidas), where the virtual classroom can be used to simulate library spaces and other educational venues such as lecture halls and student unions. In the MLIS program, students can use Second Life to demonstrate mastery of three of the program’s 16 core competencies, including development and evaluation of information retrieval systems, proficiency in use of technology, and understanding standards and principles for the organization of information. A small sample of students was surveyed after completion of a Second Life course. This survey revealed several advantages of the virtual environment, such as acquisition of career skills and digital literacy, but also exposed some drawbacks, such as Second Life’s lack of tools conducive to reflection or deep learning. Second Life has been an important part of the effort to educate library and information professionals who work with both “digital natives and digital immigrants.”  C. Kristof

Johnson, Wendell G.  “Educational Technology and College Librarianship.” College & Undergraduate Libraries 15, no. 4 (2008): 463-47.
Educational technology and librarianship intersect in many areas: distance learning, information literacy, and the design of instructional materials.  However educational technology remains ambiguous as a concept in librarianship. This article explores the development of educational technology as a distinct area within the discipline of education in the 1970s to today, and how it has connected to academic librarianship throughout each of its developments. The discussion outlines key concepts such as the contemporary distinction between educational technology and instructional technology and the definition of librarianship as adopted by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology in 2008.  D. Long

Markscheffel, B., D. Fischer, and D. Stelzer. “Classification of Digital Libraries — An e–Business Model–Based Approach.” Journal of Digital Information Management 6, no. 1 (2008): 71-80.
The authors of this article note how Internet information services have grown and proliferated, finding the right service for the right need has become more complicated. Classifying those services in order to make choices about accessing them and measuring their effectiveness relative to similar services have become increasingly important. The authors make an attempt at providing a firm basis for using business modeling as an underlying structure for separating out types of digital libraries, from portals to online museums. Eventually they arrive at a content, context, community and portal. This last encompasses the other three categories. Each has appropriate subclasses.  M. Horan

Secker, Jane. “The Adventures of LASSIE: Libraries, Social Software and Distance Learners.” Serials 21, no. 2 (July 2008): 112-115.
The Centre for Learning Technology at London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) conducted a nine-month project to explore how social software might enhance distance learners’ experience of libraries. This article provides an overview of the project’s extensive literature review, case studies and key findings. The Libraries and Social Software in Education (LASSIE) project undertook five case studies: reading lists and social software, social bookmarking for libraries and students, information literacy and podcasts, libraries and blogging, and Facebook and libraries. The author concludes that social software initiatives can provide a framework for the essential support distance learning students need to successfully access and use library resources.  J. Hutson

Stanescu, Liana, Dumitru Burdescu, Mihai Gabriel, Cosmin Stoica and Anca Ion. “Access Modalities to an Imagistic Library for Medical e–Learning.” In Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5173, edited by Birte Christensen–Dalsgaard, Donatella Castelli, Bolette Ammitzboll Jurik, and Joan Lippincott. New York: Springer, 2008, 260-263.
As faculty in the automation, computers and electronics area of the University of Craiova, the authors came up with a solution to help students and medical personnel access a “medical imagistic library for educational purposes.” Students and personnel are able to use two different types of queries to search this database: content-based visual queries and semantic queries. The database contains materials and images that have been collected during patient diagnosis processes. The thesaurus used in the library is based on MeSH-controlled vocabulary from the National Library of Medicine. In 2007, 60 students used the training module and accessed the database approximately 9 times. The authors note that these students found the tool “very innovative and with great advantages in the medical e-learning process.”  R. McWilliams


Bell, L., T. Peters, M. Gullett, K. Czarnecki, K. “D303-Alliance Library Gets a Second Life: Library Services in a Virtual World.” In Computers In Libraries Annual Conference and Exhibition USA. CONF 22, 2007, 209.
This citation leads to an abstract of a presentation given at the CIL Annual Conference on the collaborative Second Life (SL) project of the Alliance Library of Peoria IL and the Charlotte Public Library of Charlotte NC. A short search lead to the PowerPoint presentation that was given: Though there are no notes embedded in the file, several of the presenters, with others, wrote at least two articles on similar topics. Along with the R. Perkins proposal abstracted here, these articles provide an outline of the issues involved, pros and cons, and the steps to setting up shop in a multiuser virtual environment (MUVE). The following articles provide narratives to the PowerPoint-linked file: Bell, L., Pope, K., & Peters, T. (2008). “The Universal Library in a Virtual Universe.” Searcher, 16(5), 26-61. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database and Bell, L., Lindbloom, M., Pope, K., & Peters, T. (2008). “Virtual Libraries and Education in Virtual Worlds: Twenty-first century library services.” Policy Futures in Education, 6(1), 49-58.  M. Horan

Bolettieri, Paulo, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio Gennaro and Fausto Rabitti. “A Digital Library Framework for Reusing e-Learning Video Documents.” in Creating new learning experiences on a global scale. Berlin: Springer, 2007, 444-449.
The authors of this article illustrate how MILOS, a Multimedia Content Management System allows for auto-extraction of metadata from digital content. They discuss how the structure of these tools, such as a digital library, allows for the reuse of e-learning documents. MILOS efficiently supports the storage and retrieval of multimedia learning documents. This article also discusses the VICE (Virtual Communities for Education) project which promotes high quality, cost-effective distance learning. It encourages the application of digital library techniques for retrieval and reuse of e-learning objects. As well, the authors discuss metadata management by analyzing the adopted model and the utilized tools. They provide an overview of the search and browsing Web interface provided with reposting of the VICE project and end with a summary of the project’s contribution to the field of E-learning.  S. Cisse

Deng, Xiaozhao and Jianhai Ruan. “The Personal Digital Library (PDL)-Based E-Learning: Using the PDL as an E-Learning Support Tool.” In IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 252, Integration and Innovation Orient to E-Society, Volume 2, edited by W. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Duan, L. Yan, H. Li, and X. Yang. Boston: Springer, 2007, 549 – 555.
The authors state that the popularization of e–learning will become mainstream in the 21st century because it offers a new way to learn anywhere at any time. They propose the personal digital library (PDL) as an e–learning support tool that is constructed, managed and utilized by the individual. Their paper discusses the reasons for constructing a PDL and a process for its construction and use, and concludes with a list of advantages a PDL offers for building a foundation for a more comfortable e-learning environment.  J. Hutson

Farkas, Meredith. “The Evolving Library.” American Libraries; no. 6 (2007): 50-50.
This article discusses libraries and continual re-evaluation of the changing needs of their service population. As far back as 1905, libraries have been challenged with defining themselves as more than just book repositories.  Libraries must always consider certain issues when it comes to employing new technologies.  The author lays out 10 tips for successfully implementing technologies in any period of time. Three staff related tips are: one, encouraging staff to take risks; two, involving staff in planning; and three, offering training for staff and patrons. The next three tips involve the patron. They are: considering their unique needs when deciding what to implement; making sure the technology indeed fills a need; and focusing the marketing on what it can do for the patron, more so than what it is. With regards to the implemented technology, consider playing with it before it goes live, think about maintenance issues, and conduct ongoing assessment to determine its impact.  The final tip encourages libraries to be willing to quickly make technology changes according to patron needs, and to adapt to effectively serve patrons.  S. Cisse

Hayworth, Gene. “Enhancing a Collaborative Library Research Tool — BELL: the Business Ethics Links Library Clearinghouse.” In >E-Learn 2007: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, October 15-19, 2007, Québec City, Québec: Proceedings of E-Learn 2007, edited by Theo Bastiaens and Saul Carliner. Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 1579-1586.
This article introduces BELL, the Business Ethics Link Library Clearinghouse, a collaboration between the William M. White Business Library at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the business library at the University of Western Ontario.  BELL is designed to meet the needs of business students and scholars who are seeking information on corporate social responsibility.  Users are able to access BELL to discover links to internal company promotional materials and government agency regulatory requirements.  While BELL is not designed strictly for use in distance learning, it is a valuable source for distance learning students participating in business programs.  D. Long

Levesque, Nancy. “The Electronic Health Library of British Columbia eHLbc).” In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2007, edited by Theo Bastiaens and Saul Carliner. Chesapeake, VA: AACE, 2007, 2218 – 2220.
The Electronic Health Library of British Columbia (eHLbc) began in the mid-2000s to reduce costs and duplication of licenses as well as to provide expanded access to a core suite of research databases for students and healthcare practitioners. This collaborative approach of academic and health sector libraries operates under the auspices of the BC Academic Health Council with committee membership comprising all participating libraries. The author details the need for such an approach, the initial scope of the project, start-up and management issues, and the activities undertaken in the three years since eHLbc began. The end of the article focuses on lessons learned in building a project that crosses geographic and jurisdictional boundaries in order to support e–learning for all in the healthcare field.  J. Hutson

Perkins, R. “Building a Virtual ‘Information and Communications Technology Library’ for Educators.” In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2007, edited by R. Carlsen. Chesapeake, VA: AACE, 2007, 2089-2090.
This is a reprint of the proposal for a poster session to be held at the 2007 conference. The presenter worked with the Alliance Library System (Peoria IL; which has itself set up a library service in Second Life (SL)), to set up what is essentially a training site for new or want-to-be Second Life teachers. Called the “Information and Communication Technology Library,” it provides information and guidance on how to set up interactive classrooms in SL, such as how to build things, how to add video, audio feeds, and chat messaging, and how to create a “work around” for voice chat.  M. Horan

“Some Problems of the Digital Library.” Distance Education Report 11, no. 13 (July 1, 2007): 4-8.
Suggestions regarding the evolving roles of technologists and librarians as information guides are explored in this article. The article calls for a new business model for licensed information that accounts for the preservation of digital objects and denotes what licensed information will be perpetually available. Librarians are advised to inform faculty of privacy and copyright issues and standards in learning management systems and course management systems while technologists help users adapt to new systems and format changes. Other roles for librarians include finding ways to attach metadata to digital objects, and advising and assisting faculty with selection, retention, and deaccession of digital assets. Librarians and technologists need to keep their campuses abreast of new software, tools, and resources.  C. Barboza


Acosta-Diaz, R.; Guillen, H.M.; Ruiz, M.A.G.; Gallardo, A.R.; Pulido, J.R.G.; Reyes, P.D. “An open source platform for indexing and retrieval of multimedia information from a digital library of graduate thesis.” In: Reeves, T.C.; Yamashita, S.F.; E-Learn 2006; Proceedings of World conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare and higher education, E-Learn 2006. Chesapeake: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, p. 1822-1829.
In this article the instructors (listed as authors) from the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California present their work on the MIND (MIxed-media Networked Digital Library) project.  This project creates a digital library of media from a digital library of graduate theses at their university.  These items are captured, indexed and can be retrieved through the system.  The authors wanted to keep text as well as images (tables, charts, graphs, etc.), video, and PowerPoint slides from student’s theses and the defense of their theses in one place.  Items can be retrieved by keyword or date.  The instructors are still working on the system.   R. McWilliams

Almeida, Rodrigo, Pierre Cubaud, Jerome Dupire, Stephane Natkin, and Alexandre Topol. “Experiments Towards 3D Immersive Interaction for Digital Libraries.” In Technologies for E-learning and Digital Entertainment: First International Conference, Edutainment 2006, Hangzhou, China, April 16-19, 2006: Proceedings, edited by Zhigeng Pan. New York: Springer, 2006, 1348-1357.
The authors describe the creation of 3D representations of digital resources, which allow users to simultaneously read multiple digital documents and browse collections. The authors recreate the ability to browse a collection’s titles in a virtual environment and to view pages from selected books while the collection remains visible in the background. These 3D representations are thus far exclusive to a collection of rare books on French history, but the approach explores the connection between context-view and detail-view of digital works.  D. Long

He, D., M. Mao, & Y. Peng. “DiLight: a Digital Library Based E-Learning Environment for Learning Digital Libraries.” Paper presented at the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, October 13-17, 2006, Honolulu, Hawaii. Online. Available:
Digital collections are gaining in importance and librarians and other information providers and users are seeking to understand the nuances. The authors find currently available learning management systems inadequate for creating and using digital collections to support student learning. They have developed DiLight, an integrated and interactive learning management system based on the open source platform DSpace. The authors discuss the design and development of DiLight, which organizes presentation slides, reading materials, and student comments into documents retrievable randomly through multiple retrieval methods. Student success in using DiLight is also discussed.  S. Rao

Jaramillo, J., A. Olmos, and R.M. Prol. “Towards a Model of Digital Library concerning Didactical Material.” In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006, edited by T. Reeves and S. Yamashita. Chesapeake, VA: AACE, (2006): 2686-2690.
The authors of this piece propose a concept termed “digital libraries.” They define “digital libraries,” provide evidence for the need, and describe the process of creating and implementing the digital libraries. One of the main components of their proposed digital library is material that will aid teachers in their instruction of distance learning students. These materials, whether created or acquired, should enhance online learning.  C. Girton

Maher, Elaine, Pramod Pathak, and Mary Cooke. “Investigation of the Awareness, Role & Future of Digital Libraries in an Educational Context.” In E-Learn 2006 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education: proceedings of E-Learn 2006, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 13-17, 2006, edited by Thomas C. Reeves and Shirley F. Yamashita. Chesapeake,VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2006: 1674-1679.
This paper reports on the value of digital library collections in the classroom. Through surveys of primary school students and teachers the authors gauged how Web-based technologies were being used in the classroom. The authors visited classrooms to observe how teachers used digital libraries in real world exercises. The article concludes with the observation that while digital libraries do not contain all of the resources necessary for a classroom, teachers can learn how to create exercises using content available in digital libraries.  L. Williams

Mardis, Marcia and Ellen Hoffman. “The New Library Science: The Undiscovered Potential for Digital Libraries to Help School Libraries Support Science.” In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006, edited by Thomas Reeves and Shirley Yamashita. Chesapeake, VA: AACE, 2006, 726 – 733.
It is no surprise that students prefer online resources over print materials and that for many years school library media programs have broadened their collections to include more electronic materials. In this article the authors examine the advantages and challenges that digital libraries afford school libraries within the context of a science curriculum. Their preliminary research focuses on identifying the external and internal relationships between science education and school libraries. Armed with data from their research and the concept that digital libraries enhance science education, the authors discuss issues and solutions for realizing the potential of digital libraries to transform student learning.  J. Hutson

McCulley, L and O. Reinauer. “Connecting with AIM: The Search for a Virtual Reference Niche.” College & Undergraduate Libraries 13, no. 4 (2006): 43-54. doi:10.1300/J106v13n04_04
The authors here chronicle their early adoption of 24/7 reference software. Boatwright Library faculty started off with the Library of Congress pilot program, considered QuestionPoint and off-the-shelf call service software and found them to be too expensive, overly complicated, too restrictive, or too short-lived and unable to bring in enough questioners, even after a publicity campaign. A conversion to AOL's AIM and another advertising campaign drove up reference from IM service from near zero to 6% consistently across three semesters. Email reference represented 4% to 5% of all reference during that period. Authors felt the popularity of the software and its ease of use were strongly responsible for patron adoption. They end by wishing for a Meebo-like tool for supporting multiple IM services.  M. Horan

Pascual, Mireia, Nuria Ferran, and Julia Minguillon. “Integration of Multimedia Content and E-learning Resources in a Digital Library.” In Proceedings of SPIE 6061: San Jose, California, Jan. 7, 2006. 60610G1-11.
With the authors’ Universitat Oberta de Catalyunya (Barcelona, Spain) as the backdrop, this technically-focused paper is a proposal for the use of the MPEG-7 standard for the description of learning resources of all types (from books to multimedia to learning objects) in a digital library. Dublin Core, LOM, and MPEG-7 standards equivalencies are outlined and compared, and the MPEG-7 standard and its use are described in detail. The authors’ work is in the beginning stages, wherein they are indentifying basic metadata with the involvement of librarians, teachers, instructional designers, and usability experts. The authors contend that intellectual property issues associated with the use of materials can also be managed under this proposal. They assert that, with the use of the MPEG-7 standard, the digital library can become a content producer and complex multimedia courses can be efficiently built.  C. Kristof